My Morning Jacket is the first Louisville band to receive national attention that I can remember. I’m not that familiar with them, though I suspect they would list Uncle Tupelo, The Jayhawks and other alt-country acts found in my music collection among their antecedents.
I really like this quote from their website, describing Louisville:
My Morning Jacket hail from the city of Louisville, Kentucky, an odd metro-suburban mix of stark industry and fine thoroughbreds and rock and roll fevers. "It's a place with no labels. It's not the South, it's not Chicago, and you don't think of it as you think of New York or LA. It has some Southern romanticism to it, but also a Northern progressivism, this weird urban island in the middle of the state of Kentucky that has always provided a fertile, often dark, bed. For us, Louisville and the surrounding areas are the center of massive creativity and massive weirdness. The place has its flaws: You move away, but you're always going to come back."